Pesticide discovered to have larger effect on bees than thought
AFP October 23, 2012, 12:01 am TWN
PARIS--Chronic exposure to pesticides has a bigger knock-on effect on bees than conventional probes suggest, according to a new study on Sunday touching on the mysterious collapse of bee colonies.
Biologists at the University of London carried out an exceptional field study into bumblebees exposed to two commonly used agricultural insecticides.
They sought to mimic what happens in a real-life setting, where different crops are sprayed with different pesticides at different dosages and times.
Because bees get their food both from sprayed crops and wild plants, such variations make it hard to calculate the insects' total exposure to the chemicals.
In addition, very little is known about what happens to bees once they return to the colony after foraging, possibly passing on pesticide-laden food to larvae.
A team led by Richard Gill monitored 40 bumblebee colonies, tagging 259 bees with radio frequency identification (RFID) to time exactly when the insects left home or returned.
The colonies were divided into four groups.
Three were allowed to access feeder boxes, set up in the path of their nest boxes, that had a sugary syrup spiked with imidacloprid insecticide and/or a filter paper laced with another agricultural chemical, gamma-cyhalothrin.
The bumblebees were not constrained to visit the treated material — they could forage freely in the surrounding landscape for pollen and nectar.
The fourth group of colonies was a "control" or comparison group that did not have the feeder boxes.
In the colonies exposed to imidacloprid, fewer adult workers emerged from larvae and a higher proportion of foragers failed to return to the nest, the investigators found.
In those exposed to gamma-cyhalothrin, there was a higher death rate among worker bees.
And colonies that were exposed to both kinds of pesticides were likelier to fail.
The experiment was exceptionally long and detailed, the scientists say.
It lasted four weeks, whereas current guidelines test pesticides on bees for only up to 96 hours.
In addition, it looked at what happened when bees were exposed to two chemicals at the same time and at the changes in a colony's social structure.
"Our findings have clear implications for the conservation of insect pollinators in areas of agricultural intensification, particularly social bees, with their complex social organization and dependence on a critical threshold of workers," says the study, published in Nature.
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