Male circumcision lowers HIV risk for women, says world AIDS forum study
By Richard Ingham ,AFP July 26, 2014, 12:00 am TWN
MELBOURNE -- A campaign to promote male circumcision to prevent AIDS infection also indirectly benefits women by reducing their risk of contracting the HIV virus, according to a study presented at the world AIDS forum Friday.
In a South African community where large numbers of men had been circumcised, women who only had sex with circumcised partners had a 15-percent-lower risk of being infected by HIV compared with women who also had uncircumcised partners, it found.
"The risk reduction is small, but it is a start," said investigator Kevin Jean of France's National Agency for AIDS Research (ANRS).
The study was presented on the final day of the 20th International AIDS conference in Melbourne.
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends voluntary circumcision as an option for men in 14 sub-Saharan countries struggling with high rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
The guidelines — which have triggered a multimillion-dollar program — are founded on evidence from three trials carried out in South Africa, Kenya and Uganda.
These concluded that circumcision resulted in a reduced HIV risk — for men — of between 50 and 60 percent.
What has been fiercely debated, though, is the impact of male circumcision on women.
Key questions included whether, if large numbers of men were circumcised, the infection risk for women would fall too.
Another issue raised was that circumcised men might think wrongly that they were fully shielded from HIV and ignore advice to wear a condom — thus increasing the risk for women.
Looking at these questions, the new study enrolled 2,452 women aged between 15 and 29 who lived in Orange Farm in South Africa, where the first of the landmark trials was carried out in 2002.
The women's blood was tested in 2007, 2010 and 2012, and they were also asked questions about their sexual behavior, as was a representative sample of local men.
During this time, the prevalence of circumcision among men in the community rose from 12 percent to 53 percent.
Over 30 percent of women reported having sexual relations only with circumcised men: 17.8 percent became infected during the study period.
But among women who had sex with uncircumcised men, the prevalence of HIV was almost twice as high, at 30.4 percent.
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